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Set up the payment term


Payment terms have a direct effect on your business cash flow and on the risk to get unpaid invoices and bad debts.

Longer they are, more the need in working capital to finance the receivables gets heavier, and more the risk to be impacted by a customer default is high.

It is often much more profitable to negotiate shorter payment terms and to offer a discount to your customer in order to compensate the earlier payment request.
Set up the payment term

This negotiation should be integrated into the global trade negotiation.
 Keep in mind that the credit given to your client is not compensated by an interest rate. As long as they are not paid, your bills' value goes down because of inflation. The credit given to customers is therefore:
  • A risk. You are not sure to be paid,
  • A cost due to inflation and capital employed,
  • A consumption of your company's financial resources that would be probably better used elsewhere (investment, business development ... etc.).
 Associate with the negotiated condition of payment the adapted payment method to reduce the risk of late payment.

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Payment terms

Payment term Average length of credit in days
10 days net 10
End of month the 10th 25
30 days net 30
End of month the 25th 40
30 days end of month 45
30 days end of month the 10th 55
30 days end of month the 15th 60
45 days end of month 60
60 days net 60
30 days end of month the 25th 70
60days end of month 75
60 days end of month the 10th 85
90 days net 90
60 days end of month the 25th 100
90 days end of month 105
90 days end of month the 10th 115
120 days net 120
 Be sure to correctly understand the terms of payment: 30 days end of month 25 is a longer period than 60 days net.
 Use the shorter payment term but also the best suited to the orders timing:
For example, if your customer orders are frequent (several times in a month), you should preferably use 30 days end of month the 15th rather than 60 days net. Both payment terms grant the same credit days in average. In the first case, your client will have a single payment to do each month (the 15th of each month) while in the second case, there will be as many due dates as dates of invoices. The consequence will be systematically to have late invoices.

Payment means

  Check Bank transfer Bill of exchange Promissory note Electronic bill of exchange Bill of exchange without acceptance Irrevocable deferred electronic payment order
Default risk Medium No High High High High No
Mail dependence High No Very high High No Low No
Risk of delays High Medium Low Low No No No
Bank fees No Yes No No No No Yes
Suitable for bad payers No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Discountable No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No

The check

this payment method has many disadvantages for small advantages. It depends on the postal delay, it is worded and signed by hand. A customer wishing to gain a few weeks of cash will abuse you with wrong reasons to justify delays of payment:
  • the check was supposedly sent but has not arrived. Your client asks you a letter of withdrawal before he issues a new check,
  • the check was sent to a wrong address,
  • the check is received unsigned. You must send it back to your customer for signature and then he will send it back to you again ... etc.
The only advantage of the check is to provide a recourse through a bailiff if it is returned unpaid for lack of provisions (that depends on the country).
The check is a payment method to avoid especially with bad payers!

The bank transfer

Fast, reliable, efficient, bank transfer is a safe payment method. In addition, it cannot be returned once it is on your bank account (no return unpaid possible). Its only disadvantage is that it cannot be anticipated with a payment done a later due date.

The bill of exchange

The bill of exchange is issued by the supplier and has the advantage to be an unconditional order in writing to pay at fixed date a certain amount of money. You can receive the bill before the due date (eg 30 days), you cash it in your bank account and your client will be automatically debited to date.

This possibility limits the disadvantages of paper and the dependence of mail. Such as the check a bill of exchange may come back unpaid several weeks after the due date unless it is endorsed by the bank of your client.
Variant of the bill of exchange, bills of exchange without acceptance consists for the suppliers to deliver directly to the bank (without signature of the buyer) the bill of exchange. The buyer can then accept or refuse collection.

The promissory note

It has the same features as the bill of exchange except that it is issued by the buyer and not by the supplier.

The electronic bill of exchange

This payment mean is a way to computerize the bills of exchange. The supplier (the drawer) sends an electronic file to the bank. Then there is an exchange between the supplier’s and the buyer’s (drawee) banks and the buyer accept or reject the bill of exchange.

This payment method has the advantages of the bill of exchange without the disadvantages. It requires to be implemented a strong partnership between supplier and buyer as the buyer is losing its autonomy in the management of its payments to his supplier.

The irrevocable deferred electronic payment order

The irrevocable deferred electronic payment order is an automated bank transfer to a future date. It is issued by the debtor (buyer). Unlike traditional bank transfer which is a cash transaction, the irrevocable deferred electronic payment order provides a settlement at a future date which has several advantages:
  • you are informed in advance of the payment of your bills,
  • you are guaranteed to be paid. No unpaid possible,
  • you can discount the irrevocable deferred electronic payment order in order to get cash immediately .


Next:down payment and payment in advance
 


Online tools:

Bills due date calculation

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Last comments

Very interesting indeed but one thing is not precised. It refers to 45 days eom. I hear about 2 interpretations: one says 45 days then end of month; the other says 45 days from the end of the month. For an invoice dated jan 20, in first case payment shall take place latest end march; the 2nd interpretation says payment on the 15th of march. What is your opinion? Any official rule to refer to? Depending on specific country? Best regards

You are right, both calculations are good. In France, the law says that both are usable. Seller and buyer ahve to agree on the prefered method.
Best Regards, Bertrand
From :Petit Francois

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